The Reserve Bank is required to achieve and maintain price stability in the interest of balanced and sustainable economic growth in South Africa.
The achievement of price stability is quantified by the setting of an inflation target by Government that serves as a yardstick against which price stability is measured. The achievement of price stability is underpinned by the stability of the financial system and financial markets. For this reason, the Bank is obliged to actively promote financial stability as one of the important determinants of financial system stability.
At present, sections 223 to 225 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, the South African Reserve Bank Act, 1989 as amended and the regulations framed in terms of this Act, provide the enabling framework for the Bank's operations. The Bank has a considerable degree of autonomy in the execution of its duties.
In terms of section 224 of the Constitution, 1996, "the South African Reserve Bank, in pursuit of its primary object, must perform its functions independently and without fear, favour or prejudice, but there must be regular consultation between the Bank and the Cabinet member responsible for national financial matters." The independence and autonomy of the Bank are therefore entrenched in the Constitution.
The Bank has been entrusted with the overarching monetary policy goal of containing inflation. The Bank can use any instruments of monetary policy at its disposal to achieve this monetary policy goal. This implies that the Bank has instrument independence in monetary policy implementation but not goal independence in the selection of a monetary policy goal.
The Governor of the Bank holds regular discussions with the Minister of Finance and meets periodically with members of the Parliamentary Portfolio and Select Committees on Finance. In terms of section 32 of the South African Reserve Bank Act, 1989, the Bank publishes a monthly statement of its assets and liabilities and submits its Annual Report to Parliament. The Bank is therefore ultimately accountable to Parliament.